Tarihin Nahiyar Afrika

Afirka, nahiya mafi girma ta biyu (bayan Asiya), wadda ke rufe kusan kashi ɗaya cikin biyar na ɗaukacin saman duniya. Nahiyar ta yi iyaka da yamma da Tekun Atlantika, daga arewa kuma ta yi iyaka da tekun Mediterrenean, a gabas da tekun Bahar Maliya da Tekun Indiya, a kudu kuma ta hade da ruwan tekun Atlantika da na Indiya.

Fadin Afirka kusan mil miliyan 11,724,000 ne (kilomita miliyan 30,365,000), kuma nahiyar tana da nisan mil dubu 5,000 (kilomita dubu 8,000) daga arewa zuwa kudu da kusan mil dubu 4,600 (kilomita dubu 7,400) daga gabas zuwa yamma. Ƙarshen arewacinta shine Al-Ghīrān Point, kusa da Al-Abyaḍ Point (Cape Blanc), Tunisiya; iyakar kudancinta shine Cape Agulhas, Afirka ta Kudu; Gabas mafi nisa shine Xaafuun (Hafun) Point, kusa da Cape Gwardafuy (Guardafui), Somaliya; kuma iyakar yammacinta shine Almadi Point (Pointe des Almadies), akan Cape Verde (Cap Vert), Senegal.

A arewa maso gabas, yankin Sinai ya hade Afirka da Asiya har zuwa lokacin da aka gina tashar Suez. Ba abin mamaki ba ne, bakin tekun Afirka—kilomita dubu 18,950 (kilomita dubu 30,500) tsayinsa—ya fi na Turai gajeru, domin akwai ƴan mashigai kaɗan da manyan magudanan ruwa.

A gefen gabar tekun Afirka da yawa tsibirai suna da alaƙa da nahiyar. Daga cikin wadannan Madagascar, daya daga cikin tsibiran da suka fi girma a duniya, shi ne ya fi muhimmanci. Sauran, ƙananan tsibiran sun haɗa da Seychelles, Socotra, da sauran tsibiran da ke gabas; Comoros, Mauritius, Réunion, da sauran tsibiran da ke kudu maso gabas; Hawan Yesu zuwa sama, St. Helena, da Tristan da Cunha zuwa kudu maso yamma; Cape Verde, tsibiran Bijagós, Bioko, da Sao Tomé da Principe zuwa yamma; da Azores da tsibirin Madeira da Canary zuwa arewa maso yamma.

Yankin Equator ya raba nahiyar kusan gida biyu, ta yadda yawancin Afirka ke cikin yankin masu zafi, wanda ke iyaka da arewa da Tropic of Cancer sannan a kudu da Tropic na Capricorn. Saboda cikar da yammacin Afirka ya yi, yawancin yankin Afirka tana arewacin Equator. An ketare Afirka daga arewa zuwa kudu ta wurin firaminista (0° longitude), wanda ya wuce tazara kadan zuwa gabas da Accra, Ghana.

Tambayoyi na Geography na Afirka
A zamanin da an ce Girkawa sun kira nahiyar Libya da Romawa don kiranta Afirka, watakila daga Latin aprica (“rana”) ko aphrike na Girkanci (“ba tare da sanyi”) ba. Sunan Afirka, an fi amfani da shi ne a gabar tekun arewacin nahiyar, wanda a zahiri, ana ɗaukarsa a matsayin wani yanki na kudancin Turai. Romawa, waɗanda a wani lokaci suke mulkin gaɓar tekun Arewacin Afirka, an kuma ce suna kiran yankin kudu da ƙauyukansu Afriga, ko kuma ƙasar Afrigs—sunan al’ummar Berber a kudancin Carthage.

Ana iya la’akari da dukan Afirka a matsayin wani babban tudu mai tsayi da ke tasowa daga kunkuntar rairayin bakin teku kuma ya ƙunshi tsoffin duwatsun crystalline. Filayen filaye ya fi girma a kudu maso gabas kuma yana karkata zuwa ƙasa zuwa arewa maso gabas. Gabaɗaya za a iya raba filaye zuwa yankin kudu maso gabas da yanki arewa maso yamma.

Yankin arewa maso yamma, wanda ya hada da Sahara (Hamada) da kuma yankin Arewacin Afirka da aka fi sani da Maghrib, yana da yankuna biyu masu tsaunuka – tsaunin Atlas da ke arewa maso yammacin Afirka, wadanda aka yi imanin cewa wani bangare ne na tsarin da ya mamaye kudancin Turai, kuma tsaunin Aggar (Hoggar) a cikin Sahara.

Yankin kudu maso gabashin tuddai ya hada da Filaton Habasha, Filato ta Gabashin Afirka, da kuma – a gabashin Afirka ta Kudu, inda gefen tudu ya fado kasa a cikin wani tabo – kewayon Drakensberg. Ɗaya daga cikin abubuwan da ke da ban mamaki a cikin tsarin yanayin ƙasa na Afirka shine Tsarin Rift na Gabashin Afirka, wanda ke tsakanin 30 ° zuwa 40 ° E. Rigimar kanta ta fara arewa maso gabashin iyakar nahiyar kuma ta wuce kudu daga bakin tekun Red Sea zuwa Zambezi. Basin kogin.