Muhimman Abubuwan Da Ya Kamata Ku Sani A Najeriya

Najeriya tana da dogon tarihi, wanda ya samo asali daga wayewar farko na fitattun fasahohi. Yankin tudu da ke kusa da Jos ya kasance wurin haduwar tasirin al’adu daga Kogin Neja na Sama (inda noma ya bunkasa a kan shi tun a shekara ta 5000 KZ) kuma daga Masar. A shekara ta 3000 KZ, mutanen plateau – watakila mutanen Bantu waɗanda daga baya suka mamaye Afirka kudu da hamadar Sahara – sun haɓaka al’ummomi masu sarƙaƙƙiya kuma sun fara zuwa kudu.

A shekara ta 500 KZ, al’adar Nok tana bunƙasa. Al’ummar Nok ta samar da kawuna da adadi masu kyau da fasaha na terracotta; ’yan aikin gona ne masu yin kayan aiki da makaman ƙarfe.

Ba da dadewa ba, a arewa, tsarin jaha mai ƙarfi ya samo asali, da yawa bisa ga sarautar Allah. Jama’ar kuwa suna kiwon shanu da dawakai, suna shuka auduga da hatsi, suna aiki da yadudduka, da fata, da baƙin ƙarfe. Sun kasance suna hulɗa da Masar da sauran al’ummomin arewacin Afirka. Dauloli biyu masu karfi sun tashi – Hausa–Bokwoi (farawa a matsayin jahohi daban daga CE 100 – 1000) da Kanem – Bornu (daga karni na 11). Sun musulunta, sun yi cinikin zinari, bayi, fata, gishiri da tufa a fadin sahara, kuma suka yi nasarar hana abokan gaba.

A kudu maso yamma, Yarbawa, kafin CE 1000, sun kafa Ife, har yanzu cibiyar ruhaniya ta ƙasar Yarbawa. Asalin Benin yana da alaƙa da Ife; Al’adar Benin ta samar da sassaken tagulla ta hanyar fasahar ‘bataccen kakin zuma’. Waɗannan shuwagabanni na al’ada ne amma ƴan ingantattun shuwagabanni masu kyan gani, ƙawanci da kyau, waɗanda ake ɗaukar su a matsayin babbar gudummawa ga al’adun fasaha na duniya. Ita kanta Ife, ta fada hannun Oyo a karni na 14 daga baya Ibadan da Abeokuta.

Mutanen kudu-maso-gabas sun sha fama da masu fataucin bayi daga arewa da bakin teku. An tilasta musu barin matsugunan su, suka shiga cikin dazuzzuka don gujewa wadanda suka yi garkuwa da su, gwagwarmayar kabilar Ibo ta kasance cikin dogayen almara, an haddace su da kuma raya zuriya.

Zaman Mulkin Mallaka

A karni na 15, Benin ta fara kasuwanci da ‘yan Portugal, suna sayar da bayi da kuma samun kayan yaji, bindigogi, fasahar rubutu da kuma addinin Kirista. A karni na 18, ’yan Burtaniya sun kori Turawan Fotigal a matsayin jagororin cinikin bayi. Ƙarni daga baya, a cikin 1807, yaƙin neman zaɓe na mishan na yaƙi da bauta ya sami tallafi, wanda ya jagoranci majalisar dokokin Burtaniya ta hana cinikin bayi. Sojojin ruwa sun fara sintiri a bakin teku, suna kame bayi tare da tsugunar da bayin da aka kama (mafi yawan su ’yan Najeriya) a yankin da ake tsugunar da su a Saliyo.

Masu wa’azi na mishan da yawa a Najeriya da kan su sun ‘yantar da bayin Najeriya da suka koma Kiristanci a Saliyo. Masu mishan sun gabatar da quinine don magance zazzabin cizon sauro, an kuma fara wani sabon cinikin dabino, kuma tattalin arzikin kudancin Najeriya ya kara karfi. Jiragen ruwa sun ɗauki wannan sabon al’ada sama-kogi zuwa cikin dazuzzuka.

A farkon karni na 19, an yi tashe-tashen hankula a arewa, yayin da sarakunan Fulani suka shelanta jihadi (yaki mai tsarki) da kasar Hausa ta Gobir, suka samar da sabuwar daula tare da jahohin birni, tsarin addini da shari’a na bai daya da kuma makarantun Alkur’ani. Daular musulmi ta yadu cikin sauri.

Yarbawa, a cikin matsin lamba, sun kusanta da Burtaniya, wacce ta mamaye Legas a 1861. A 1884, ikon Birtaniyya ya fadada tare da samar da Kare Kogin Man Fetur, wanda aka kafa karkashin yarjejeniya da sarakunan Yarbawa, sannan arewa, yayin da aka ci Ibo. A shekarar 1900, Biritaniya ta mallaki Najeriya.

Ofishin Turawan Mulkin Mallaka ya amince da tsarin mulkin kai tsaye, inda shugabannin gargajiya ke cigaba da mulki alhalin suna biyayya ga mulkin mallaka.

Yawancin ‘yan Najeriya masu ilimi sun ki amincewa da tsarin, tun da ya kafe al’adun gargajiya wadanda, a cikin al’umma mai ‘yanci, da za su rikide zuwa wani tsari na cigaba. Duk da haka, tsarin ya hana mazauna Burtaniya mamaye tattalin arziki, kuma kasuwancin Najeriya ya gina kasuwancin fitar da kayayyaki masu yawa a cikin koko, gyada, fata, auduga da kuma mai.

Cigaban Tsarin Mulki

A cikin 1914, an kawo ‘yan Afirka shida cikin majalisar ba da shawara ta gwamna. A cikin 1922, majalisar dokoki (‘yan Afirka goma, hudu daga cikin su zaɓaɓɓu, da kuma 36 Turawa) an ba su ikon yin doka don kudu. A cikin 1947, an ba da ikon majalisa ga dukan ƙasar. Yanzu haka tana da 28 na Afirka (zaɓaɓɓun huɗu) da membobin Turai 17. Kundin tsarin mulki na 1947 ya kuma kafa majalisun dokoki na yanki a gabashi da yamma da arewa, tare da majalisar sarakuna a arewa. Kundin tsarin mulki na 1951 ya ba wa ‘yan Najeriya daidaiton madafun iko.

A 1954, Najeriya ta zama tarayya; a shekarar 1957 yankunan Gabas da Yamma suka sami mulkin kai na cikin gida da Arewacin Najeriya shekaru biyu bayan haka. Zaben majalisar wakilai ta tarayya a watan Disamba 1959 ya kawo sabuwar gwamnati. A taron ta na farko, sabuwar majalisar ta bukaci cikakken yancin kai, sannan Najeriya ta samu ‘yancin kai a ranar 1 ga Oktoban 1960.

Ƴancin Kai

Jam’iyyar People’s Congress ta Arewa ce ta jagoranci gwamnatin ‘yancin kai a Najeriya tare da hadin gwiwar Majalisar Jama’ar Najeriya (wata jam’iyyar Ibo mafi yawan su), tare da Sir Abubakar Tafawa Balewa a matsayin Firayim Minista. A 1963, kasar ta zama jamhuriya kuma Dr Nnamdi Azikiwe shugaban ta na farko (ba mai zartarwa ba).

An yi juyin mulki na farko a watan Janairun 1966 kuma Tafawa Balewa na cikin wadanda aka kashe. Kwamandan Sojoji Manjo-Janar Aguiyi-Ironsi ya jagoranci wata sabuwar gwamnati, wacce ta soke tarayyar ta kafa kasa ta dunkule. A watan Yulin 1966, sojoji daga arewa suka sake ramuwar gayya da wani juyin mulki inda aka kashe Aguiyi-Ironsi sannan Laftanar-Kanar Yakubu Gowon ya zama shugaban kasa. Ya maido da gwamnatin tarayya sannan ya maye gurbin yankuna hudu da jihohi 12. Ya saka farar hula cikin gwamnati tare da yin alkawarin maido da mulkin demokradiyya cikin gaggawa.

A watan Mayun 1967, Lt-Col Chukwuemeka Odumegwu Ojukwu ya ayyana gabashin Najeriya kasa mai cin gashin kan ta mai suna Jamhuriyar Biafra. Wannan ya haifar da yakin basasa. An cigaba da gwabza fada har aka ci Biafra a watan Janairun 1970 sannan Ojukwu yayi gudun hijira; yakin ya janyo asarar rayukan mutane kusan miliyan daya.

A shekarar 1975 aka yiwa Gowon juyin mulki aka maye gurbin shi da Birgediya Murtala Muhammed, wanda ya gabatar da sauye-sauyen tattalin arziki, da sabon tsarin jihohi 19 da kuma shirin komawa mulkin farar hula cikin shekaru hudu. An kashe shi a juyin mulkin da ba a taba gani ba a shekarar 1976.

Laftanar Janar Olusegun Obasanjo yayi nasara kuma ya cigaba da manufofin Muhammad: an dage haramcin harkokin siyasa (1978), an gudanar da zaben jam’iyyu da yawa (1979) sannan Shehu Shagari na Jam’iyyar National Party of Nigeria ya zama (1978) zartarwa) Shugaban kasa, wanda aka sake zaba a 1983.

Sai dai kuma a shekarar 1983 wani juyin mulkin da sojoji suka yi ya kawo karshen wannan dan kankanin lokaci na mulkin dimokradiyya. Sabon shugaban kasa Manjo-Janar Muhammadu Buhari ya kaddamar da wani gagarumin shirin tsuke bakin aljihu tare da yaki da zaman banza da wadatar da kai. Wannan ya sake haifar da juyin mulki a 1985 wanda ya kawo Manjo-Janar Ibrahim Babangida kan karagar mulki. Ya soke dokar da ba a yarda da ita ba, kuma a cikin 1987, yayi alkawarin komawa mulkin farar hula kafin 1992. A 1989 aka kafa jam’iyyu biyu (jami’i biyu ne kawai aka halatta).

Canjin mulkin farar hula ya kai har zuwa zaɓe zuwa majalisun jihohi a 1991 da zaɓen fidda gwani na shugaban ƙasa a 1992 (sake 1993) kafin a dakatar da aiwatar da duka. Sabuwar jam’iyyar Social Democratic Party ta samu rinjaye a majalisun biyu, kuma ana kyautata zaton shugaban ta Cif Moshood Abiola ne ke kan gaba a zaben shugaban kasa. Amma kafin a bayyana dukkan sakamakon zaben, Babangida ya soke zaben, jim kadan bayan yayi murabus. Tsawon wasu watannin farar hula Cif Ernest Shonekan ya kasance shugaban gwamnatin rikon kwarya, kuma an bukace shi da gudanar da zabuka masu zuwa.

Sai dai a watan Nuwamban shekarar 1993, a juyin mulkin na bakwai a Najeriya, Janar Sani Abacha ya karbi mulki kuma ya soke shirin komawa mulkin farar hula. Ya rusa gwamnatin rikon kwarya ta kasa, majalisun kasa da na jihohi, majalisun zartaswa na jihohi da jam’iyyun siyasa biyu, ya kuma haramta duk wasu harkokin siyasa.

A watan Yunin 1994 aka gudanar da taron tsarin mulki don tsara shirin komawa mulkin farar hula. Taron ya kasa cimma matsaya. Jim kadan kafin bude shi, Cif Abiola, a kan zaben 1993, ya ayyana kan shi a matsayin shugaban kasa. An kama shi kuma an tuhume shi da laifin cin amanar kasa; an tsare shi a gidan yari kuma ba a kai shi kotu ba.

A cikin watan Maris na 1995, a lokacin wani rikici da ya barke bayan wani juyin mulki da ake zargin an yi, sojoji sun kama fitattun ‘yan adawar gwamnati da masu fafutukar ganin an dawo da mulkin dimokuradiyya cikin gaggawa, ciki har da Janar Olusegun Obasanjo mai ritaya da Shehu Musa ‘Yar’aduwa – wadanda tasirin siyasar su ya samo asali daga kasancewar sun jagoranci gwamnatin soja wadda ta mika mulki ga gwamnatin farar hula a shekarar 1979. Obasanjo da ’Yar’aduwa an yi musu shari’ar cin amanar kasa aka yanke musu hukuncin dauri mai tsawo. Ba da dadewa ba, a watan Oktoba, Abacha ya kara dage shirin komawa mulkin dimokuradiyya, ya kuma bayyana sabon jadawalin shekaru uku na kammala mika mulki kafin karshen 1998.

A cikin tsare-tsaren siyasa da dama na wannan lokaci, an kama daya daga cikin fitattun marubutan Najeriya, Ken Saro-Wiwa, shugaban yakin da ake yi na yaki da gurbatar muhalli da ruwan Ogoni da masana’antar man fetur ke yi, da wasu mutane takwas da laifin kisan wasu sarakunan yankin. Kotun soji ta yi musu shari’a kuma ta kashe su a ranar 10 ga Nuwamba 1995, sa’o’i bayan bude taron shugabannin Commonwealth a New Zealand. A martanin da ta mayar, a ranar 11 ga watan Nuwamba, shugabannin kasashen Commonwealth sun dakatar da Najeriya daga zama mamba a kungiyar, saboda saba wa ka’idojin kungiyar Commonwealth ta Harare, tare da yin kira da a saki Abiola da wasu fursunonin siyasa 43.

A shekarar 1996 aka yiwa jam’iyyu biyar rajista aka gudanar da zaben kananan hukumomi a watan Maris na shekarar 1997, lokacin da United Nigeria Congress Party (UNCP) da Democratic Party of Nigeria (DPN) suka lashe mafi yawan kujeru. A taron Commonwealth da aka yi a Edinburgh na kasar Birtaniya a watan Oktoban 1997 an tsawaita dakatarwar da Najeriya ta yi daga shiga kungiyar har zuwa ranar 1 ga Oktoban 1998 inda gwamnatin Abacha ta ce za ta maido da mulkin dimokradiyya da farar hula. Idan shirin mika mulki ya gaza, ko kuma bai tabbata ba, za a kori Najeriya. A cikin Disamba 1997, UNCP ta sami rinjaye a cikin 29 daga cikin majalisun jihohi 36.

A watan Afrilun 1998 dukkan jam’iyyun siyasa biyar da suka yi rajista sun amince da Abacha a matsayin dan takarar su na zaben shugaban kasa na watan Agusta, koda yake bai fito fili ya amince ya tsaya ba. A babban zaben da aka gudanar a cikin wannan watan, kuri’un da aka kada, UNCP ta samu rinjayen kujeru a majalisar wakilai da ta dattawa.

Abacha ya rasu ba zato ba tsammani a watan Yunin 1998, sannan babban hafsan hafsan sojin kasa Janar Abdulsalami Abubakar ya maye gurbin shi a matsayin shugaban kasa, wanda ya yi alkawarin mayar da kasar ga mulkin farar hula tare da sakin fursunonin siyasa guda tara ciki har da Olusegun Obasanjo.

Cif Abiola ya kuma rasu ba zato ba tsammani, a watan Yulin 1998 yayin da ake cigaba da tattaunawa a kan sakin shi daga tsare. Yana da shekaru 60 kuma, ko da yake an fara zargin cewa wasu sun taka rawar gani, wata kungiyar likitocin kasa da kasa da aka kira don gudanar da bincike a kan gawar ta tabbatar da mutuwar shi saboda wasu dalilai. Amma yanayin yanayin kula da lafiyar shi ya yi illa ga lafiyar shi.

Abubakar ya rusa manyan hukumomin da ke da alaƙa da shirin dimokuradiyya na gwamnatin Abacha, ya saki fursunonin, ya ba da damar gudanar da harkokin siyasa ba tare da wata matsala ba tare da buga sabon jadawalin zaɓe. An kafa sabuwar hukumar zabe ta kasa mai zaman kanta a watan Agustan 1998. Sakamakon zaben kananan hukumomi a watan Disambar 1998, jam’iyyun PDP, All People’s Party (APP) da Alliance for Democracy (AD) suka fito takara zaben jihohi da na tarayya.

PDP ta samu gwamnonin jihohi 23, APP takwas da AD shida. A zabukan ‘yan majalisar dokokin kasar, jam’iyyar PDP ta samu kusan kashi 60 cikin 100 na kujerun majalisar wakilai da ta dattawa. Zaben shugaban kasa ya bai wa dan takarar PDP Obasanjo nasara mai gamsarwa da kashi 62 na kuri’un da aka kada inda ya samu kashi 38 cikin 100 na dan takarar jam’iyyar APP/AD Cif Oluyemi Falae.

Wadannan zabubbukan tarayya sun kasance sun sanya ido sosai daga kasashen duniya, ciki har da Commonwealth, masu sa ido. Ko da yake an yi la’akari da wasu munanan kura-kuran da aka yi, musamman a zaben shugaban kasa, a lokutan da ake yawan samun yawan masu kada kuri’a, amma ba a yi la’akari da cewa sun sanya ayar tambaya kan sakamakon gaba daya ba.

A sakamakon zaben, shugabannin sojoji masu barin gado sun buga sabon kundin tsarin mulki. Lokacin da Obasanjo ya zama shugaban kasa a watan Mayu 1999, an dage dakatarwar da Najeriya ta yi daga kungiyar Commonwealth. Kundin tsarin mulki na 1999, wanda ya ba da izinin aiwatar da shari’ar Musulunci don yarda da yarda, ya buɗe hanya ga wasu jihohin Arewa – karkashin jagorancin Jihar Zamfara a watan Oktoban 1999 – don neman aiwatar da shi. Hakan ya jefa kasar cikin zazzafar cece-kuce da wasu tashe-tashen hankula yayin da Kiristocin wadannan jihohin ba su gamsu da tabbacin hakan ba zai yi musu illa ba.

Hakan kuwa ya cigaba ne a daidai lokacin da Jihohin Arewa suka yi na’am da tsarin Shari’a. A watan Maris 2000 ne aka fara aiwatar da yankan hannu a Zamfara, kuma Sokoto ta fara yanke wa wata mata masu aure hukuncin kisa ta hanyar jifa bisa laifin zina a watan Oktoban 2001 (daga baya aka soke).