Janar Abdulsalami Abubakar: Shugaba Mai Hangen Nesa A Tarihin Najeriya

Abdulsalami Abubakar GCFR, (wanda aka haifa 13 Yuni 1942) ɗan asalin Najeriya ne kuma Janar na sojan Najeriya mai ritaya wanda ya zama shugaban mulkin sojan Najeriya daga 1998 zuwa 1999. Ya kuma kasance babban hafsan tsaro daga 1997 zuwa 1998. Ya gaji Janar Sani Abacha bayan mutuwarsa.

A lokacin shugabancinsa, Najeriya ta yi gyare-gyaren kundin tsarin mulkin shekarar 1979, wanda ya tanadi zabukan jam’iyyu da yawa. Ya mika mulki ga zababben shugaban kasa Olusegun Obasanjo a ranar 29 ga Mayu 1999. Shi ne shugaban kwamitin zaman lafiya na kasa a yanzu.

An haifi Abubakar dan kabilar Hausa a ranar 13 ga watan Yuni 1942 ga mahaifinsa Abubakar Jibrin da mahaifiyarsa Fatikande Mohammed, a garin Minna na jihar Neja a Najeriya.

Daga 1950 zuwa 1956 ya halarci makarantar firamare ta Native Authority Minna. Daga 1957 zuwa 1962 yayi karatunsa na sakandare a Kwalejin Gwamnati da ke Bida a Jihar Neja. Daga Janairu zuwa Oktoba 1963 ya yi karatu a Kaduna Technical College.

Aikin sojan sama

Abubakar dai memba ne na manyan jami’an ‘yan sanda da suka shiga aikin sojan saman Najeriya a ranar 3 ga Oktoban 1963. Daga 1964-1966, an dauke shi zuwa birnin Uetersen da ke yammacin Jamus tare da tawagar jami’an ‘yan sanda, domin horar da sojoji na Basic and Advance. Lokacin da ya dawo Najeriya a 1966 ya zama sojan Najeriya.

Aiki a cikin soja

Bayan ya shiga aikin soja a 1966 a matsayin jami’in kadet, Abubakar ya halarci kwas na gaggawa na fama da gajeriyar sabis na gaggawa na biyu. A watan Oktoban 1967, Abubakar ya zama mukaddashin laftanar na biyu, rundunar sojojin Najeriya. Daga 1967 zuwa 1968, Abubakar ya kasance babban hafsa na biyu, kuma kwamandan bataliya ta 92 daga 1969 zuwa 1974.

A tsakanin 1974 zuwa 1975, ya zama brigade Major, Brigade na bakwai. A shekarar 1975 ya yi aiki a matsayin kwamandan bataliya ta 84. A shekarar 1978-1979, Abubakar ya kasance kwamandan runduna ta 145 (NIBATT II), ta Majalisar Dinkin Duniya da ke kasar Lebanon.

A 1979 ya zama mataimakin Adjutant General 3rd Infantry division, Nigeria. Daga 1980 zuwa 1982, Abubakar ya kasance babban malami a makarantar horas da sojoji ta Najeriya. A shekarar 1982 aka nada shi Kanal of Administration and quartering, 1st mechanized division. Mukamin da ya rike har zuwa 1984.

Daga 1985 zuwa 1986, Abubakar shi ne kwamanda 3rd mechanized brigade. Ya yi aiki a matsayin sakataren soji na soja, 1986-1988. Abubakar ya zama babban hafsa kwamandan 1st mechanized division 1990-1991. Tsakanin 1991 zuwa 1993, ya kasance babban hafsan ma’aikata, a matsayin babban hafsan tsare-tsare da siyasa, hedkwatar tsaro.

Daga 1997 zuwa 1998, Janar Sani Abacha ya nada Abubakar a matsayin babban hafsan tsaro. Bayan rasuwar Abacha a ranar 8 ga watan Yunin 1998, wata rana aka nada Abubakar a matsayin shugaban kasa na soja kuma kwamandan rundunar sojojin tarayyar Najeriya.

Soja

Shugabannin sojoji ne ke mulkin Najeriya tun lokacin da Muhammadu Buhari ya kwace mulki daga hannun Shehu Shagari a juyin mulkin 1983. Duk da cewa an gudanar da zabukan dimokradiyya a 1993, amma Janar Ibrahim Babangida ya soke su. Rahotanni sun nuna cewa tun farko ya ki karbar mukamin, an rantsar da Abubakar a matsayin shugaban kasa a ranar 9 ga watan Yunin 1998 bayan rasuwar Abacha. Ya ayyana zaman makoki na kasa na tsawon mako guda.

Siyasa

Kwanaki kadan bayan hawansa mulki, Abubakar ya yi alkawarin gudanar da zabe cikin shekara guda tare da mika mulki ga zababben shugaban kasa. Ya kafa hukumar zabe mai zaman kanta ta kasa (INEC), inda ya nada tsohon mai shari’a Ephraim Akpata a matsayin shugaba.

Hukumar zabe ta INEC ta fara gudanar da zabuka daban-daban na kananan hukumomi a watan Disambar 1998, sannan na majalisun Jihohi da na gwamnoni da na majalisun kasa sannan kuma na shugaban kasa a ranar 27 ga Fabrairun 1999. Duk da cewa an yi kokarin ganin an gudanar da zaben cikin gaskiya da adalci, amma akwai sun kasance rashin bin ka’ida da suka yi ta jawo suka daga masu sa ido na kasashen waje.

Canja gwamnati

Wani abin mamaki ga wasu masu sukar sojojin kasar nan, a watan Mayun 1999 Janar Abubakar ya mika mulki ga zababben shugaban farar hula, Olusegun Obasanjo, ya yi ritaya daga aikin soja.

Gadon Abubakar ya gauraye. Wani da’irar lacca a Jami’ar Jihar Chicago da ke Chicago, Illinois, Amurka, ya ci karo da adawa, saboda ya goyi bayan gwamnatin Abacha. (Gwamnatin Abacha ta yi kaurin suna wajen take hakkin dan Adam). Haka kuma wasu ‘yan Najeriya sun kai kararsa a kasar inda suka yi ikirarin cewa shi ne ke da alhakin mutuwar zababben shugaban kasar Moshood Kashimawo Olawale Abiola a shekarar 1993, wanda ya mutu a gidan yari bayan sojoji sun hana shi hawa karagar mulki, da kuma tauye hakinsa, wasu a lokacin gwamnatinsa.

Abubakar ya taimaka a yunkurin samar da zaman lafiya a kasar Laberiya inda ya jagoranci zaman sulhun da aka yi a shekarar 2003 tsakanin Charles Taylor da ‘yan tawaye masu adawa da shi. Ana ganin wannan a cikin fim ɗin Addu’ar Iblis Ya Koma Jahannama. Abubakar ya kuma jagoranci kungiyar Commonwealth masu sa ido a zaben shugaban kasar Zimbabwe a shekara ta 2002, wanda ya kammala da cewa “Sharuɗɗan da ke Zimbabwe bai ba da damar bayyana ra’ayin jama’a ba.”