Tarihin Ƙasar Sudan

Kasar Sudan tana da tarihi mai cike da sarkakiya wanda ya samo asali daga wurin da take a mararrabar Afirka da Gabas ta Tsakiya. Tarihin farko na Sudan ya ga dauloli da dama, ciki har da daular Kush, wadda ta yi mulki daga kusan 800 KZ zuwa 350 KZ.

Babban birnin Kush yana cikin birnin Meroe, wanda ya kasance babbar cibiyar kasuwanci da al’adu a zamanin da. Daga karshe Masarautar Aksum ta mamaye masarautar Kush, wanda ya kawo addinin Kiristanci a yankin.

Yaduwar addinin Islama a Sudan ya faro ne tun a karni na 7, kuma a karni na 13, addinin musulunci ya kasance babban addini a yankin. Zamanin Musulunci ya sami bullowar dauloli da dama masu karfi, wadanda suka hada da Funj Sultanate, wacce ta yi mulki daga karni na 16 zuwa na 18. Funj Sultanate an san shi da tsarin ban ruwa na zamani, wanda ke ba da damar noman amfanin gona a yankin da ba a so.

A karni na 19, an shigar da Sudan cikin kasar Masar, wacce a lokacin take karkashin mulkin Ottoman. Wannan lokaci dai an yi ta fama da tashe-tashen hankula tsakanin kungiyar Mahdiyya da ke neman kafa daular Musulunci a Sudan, da kuma daular Birtaniyya da ke neman kare muradunta a yankin. Rikicin ya yi sanadin mutuwar Janar Gordon a birnin Khartoum a shekara ta 1885, daga bisani kuma sojojin Mahdist karkashin jagorancin Khalifa Abdullahi suka sha kashi.

A cikin karni na 20, Sudan ta kasance karkashin wasu jerin gwamnatocin soja, wadanda ke fama da rashin kwanciyar hankali da rikici. A shekara ta 2011, Sudan ta Kudu ta samu ‘yancin kai daga Sudan, ko da yake kasashen biyu na ci gaba da fuskantar rikicin kabilanci da na siyasa.

A halin yanzu dai Sudan na fuskantar sauyin siyasa, inda aka hambarar da tsohon shugaban kasar Omar al-Bashir a shekara ta 2019, da kuma kafa gwamnatin rikon kwarya. Duk da haka, kasar na ci gaba da fama da kalubalen tattalin arziki, rikicin da ke ci gaba da faruwa a wasu yankuna.