Addinin Musulunci A Kasar Hausa Kafin Zuwan Danfodiyo

Malamai da masana tarihi sunyi ittifaqi tare da tabbar da cewa shekaru da dadewa kafin zuwan mujaddadi Shehu Usmanu Danfodiyo tun a wuraren “Karni na goma sha hudu, 14 century” al’ummar kasar Hausa sunka amshi addinin Musulumci.

Kafin shigowar addin musulumci a kasar Hausa al’ummar wannan yankin sun kasance masu yin addin “Maguzanci” wanda shine dogara ga itace da duwatsu da aljannu da kuma tsafe-tsafe a matsayin hanyar samun nasara a rayuwa da kuma addini irin nasu na wancan lokacin.

Shigowar addinin musulumci a kasar Hausa yana da banbanci da shigar sa a sauran nahiyoyin Afirika domin an yada shi ne ta hanyar cinikayya ba ta hanyar yaki ba.

Shigowar addinin Musulumci a kasar Hausa ya ta’allaqa ne ta hanyar kasuwanci da cinikayya tsakanin mutanen kasar Hausa na wancan lokacin da sauran mutanen ketare na nahiyar baqar fata da Larabawan kasashen Afirika ta arewa “North Africa”.

Kamar yadda kundin tarihin kano “Kano Chronicle” ya tabbar addinin musulumci ya shigo a kasar Hausa daga hannun wasu ayarin mutane da ake kira da suna “Wangarawa” karkashin jagorancin shugaban su mai suna Malam Abdulrahman Zaite wadannan mutane “yan kasuwa ne kuma masu cinikayya daga tsohuwar masarautar mali ta wancan lokacin har zuwa kasar Hausa, ta wannan dalilin cinikayya har Allah ya kaddara wadannan mutanen sunka taya ma sarkin Kano na wancan lokacin “Sarki Ali Yaji” addinin musulumci cikin sa’a sarkin kano ya amshi addinin Musulumci ya kawar da addinin gargajiya na bautar “Tsumburbura” daga nan sai addinin ya watsu zuwa sauran wurare.

Daga Wannan lokacin tun a karni na goma sha hudu “14 century” mutanen kasar hausa sunka cigaba da yin addinin musulumci, sai dai musulumcin bai samu cikakkiyar kulawa ba sai a lokacin sarkin Kano “Muhammadu Rumfa” wanda shine sarkin da ya mayar da addinin musulumci a matsayin addinin da za’ayi aiki da shi a duk fadin kasar Kano. Sai daga baya musulumcin ya samu isa kasar Zazzau wato “Zaria” lokacin zarkin zazzau “Muhammadu Rabbo” sai kuma kasar Katsina lokacin sarkin katsina “Muhammadu Korau” da dai sauran kasashen Hausa.

Sarkin Kano Muhammadu Rumfa shine ya kar“bi baqoncin balaraben malamin addinin musulumcin nan daga “Tilmecen” wani gari can a cikin “kasar “algeria” mai suna Shiek Muhammad Abdulrakarim Al-maghili wannnan malamim kamar yadda tarihi ya zo shine malami na farko da ya fara rubuta littafan addinin musulumci a kasar Hausa har guda biyu:

  1. Taj al-din fi ma yajib ‘ala I-muluk: “ma’anar littafin shine aza sarki bisa tafarki ta shugabanci kamar yadda addinin musulumci ya tanada”
  2. Jumla Mukhtasara: “ma’anar wannnan littafin shine ya kunshe yadda jama’a zasu kiyaye kansu don gudun aikata laifi/sa“bo.

Sarkin Kano Muhammadu Rumfa ya bada gudummuwar sa sosai wurin ya“da addinin Allah a inda har ya roqi malaman addinin da sunkazo kano a wancan lokacin da suyi masa addu’o’i inda daga cikin addu’o’in har sunka roqa masa Allah kamar haka:

  1. Duk wanda yazo Kano har ya nemi Arziki a kano to ya zauna a kano ba tare ta ya koma garinsu ba.
  2. Sannan an roqa masa da duk cikar da garin kano zaiyi kada a sami yunwa.
  3. Wata addu’ar da ankayi masa duk wanda yazo kano dare ko rana to ya sami abincin da zaici. Da sauran su.

Wannan sarkin Muhammadu Rumfa shine wanda ya gina gidan sarautar kano na yanzu wanda har wa yau ake kiran gidan da suna “Gidan Rumfa” kuma ya gina kasuwar nan ta “Kurmi” duk a cikin karni na goma sha biyar “15 century” kusan kimanin shekaru dari shida “600” da sunka wuce kenan. Shine sarki na farko a kasar Hausa da ya fara yin sallar Idi “Eid”.

Har gobe ana ambatar duk wanda za’a nada sarkin kano da suna “Magajin Rumfa” a zamanin sa kasar kano tayi ya“ki da kasar katsina, wanda sai da anka shekara goma sha daya “11” ana fafatawa tsakanin su ba tare da “daya ta rinjayi “daya ba. Sarkin yayi sarautar kano tsawon shekaru talatin da shida “36”.

A wasu yankuna kuma kamar a kasar Gobir, da Katsina, da Zamfara, da Kabi da sauran su, duk ana gudanar da addinin musulumci shekaru daruruwa kafin zuwan mujaddadi Shehu Usmanu Danfodiyo.

A kasar Katsina anyi wasu malaman addinin musulumci guda biyu wadanda sunka shahara sosai wurin yada addinin musulumci a karni na goma sha bakwai “17th century” waton kusan shekarun 200 kafin zuwan Shehu Usmanu Danfodiyo, wadannan malaman sune:

  1. Muhammadu Ibn al-Sabbagh “Wali Dan Marina”.
  2. Muhammadu ibn Abdullahi “Wali Dan Masani”.

Kuma har wa yau akwai sauran littafan “Dan Marina da Dan Masani” wadanda ake neman ilimi da su a kasar hausa, kuma yanzu haka babbar ma“kabartar garin katsina sunan ta makabartar “Dan marna.

Sai dai kash! Mafi yawa daga cikin al’ummar kasar Hausa na wancan lokacin kafin zuwan Shehu Usmanu Danfodiyo sun cigaba da hade addinin musulumci da al’adun gargajiya wanda hakan ya sa“ba ma shari’ar addinin musulumci, wasu kuma ga baki daya addinin gargajiya kawai Sauke yi, amman sai dai kuma kadan daga cikin su suna yin addinin musulumci tsintsar sa kamar yadda shari’ah ta tana da.

Misali a kasar Katsina: Inna itace uwar tsafi kuma abin dogaro ga jama’a, inda har wani kirari akeyi ma Inna kamar haka “Inna uwar mu, Inna uwar Ibrahim (Sarkin Rafi), Inna ta Malam Sambo…, Inna mai nobbom, ta maidawa dan jigo, Allah abin dogara, Inna abin dogara, Inna mai gida bisa kuka, Inna mai gida bisa Labi, badan ke ba sai ace aljani karyane”.

Ita ma masarautar kabi kamar sauran masarautun Gobir Katsina da sauran su, wadda anka bu“da a shekarar 1515 wato tun a karni na goma sha shidda “16th century” kenan wadda sarkin kabi na wancan lokacin Muhammadu Kanta Kotal ya bu“da wadda garin “Surame” ya kasance birnin tarayyar ta har zuwa lokacin da kabawa sunka koma sunka buda sabon garin su bayan mutuwar sarkin su na wancan lokacin, sun bu“da garin “Takalafiya” wadda har sunka maida ta da suna “Birnin-Kabi” daga nan bayan cin yakin da Daular Usmaniyya tayyi ma kabawa a garin Birnin-Kabi a shekarar 1805 wato a karni na goma sha tara “19th century” kenan shi yassa kabawa sunkayi kaura daga wannan Birnin nasu sunka koma wani wuri na daban inda suke kira da suna “Argungu” inda kabawa sunkayi nasarar sake kafa masarautar su a shekarar 1849 karkashin sabon Sarkin kabi “Yakubu Nabame” kuma wannan garin ya kasance sabuwar birnin masarautar kabi har zuwa yau.

Sai dai wadannan kabawan suma suna hade Addinin musulumci da na gargajiya kamar sauran takwarorin su na kasar Hausa, ga kadan daga cikin irin nasu abubuwan: Camfi “irrational belief” inda sunka yarda da cewa mace mai dauke da juna biyu bata zuwa gulbi don idan ta je abinda ke cikin ta zai dauki “dabi’ar aljannu, wankin tufafi a ranar laraba ko assabar yana kawo matsanancin talauci saboda haka jama’a su kiyaye.

A masarautar kabi kuma mafi yawan masu bada maganin gargajiya sun ha“da da: Bokaye/“Yan-magori, Masaka, “Yan bori, Makera, Masunta, Wanzammai, Ar-bikai/Ungozomai, Mahauta da sauran su, ko wane daga cikin su da nashi kalar maganin gargajiyar da yake badawa. Misali: Bokaye suna bada maganin gargajiya idan anje inda suke, sai “Yan-magori su kuma suna yawa-tawa a cikin al’umma da nasu kalar magani kamar su sassan jikin dabbobi da tsuntsaye har da su kada, kunkuru, kadangare, har da mai na manyan itacen daji da sauran su.

Wasu daga cikin Aljannu da mutanen kasar Hausa na wancan lokacin sunka dogara garesu sun hada da: “Malam Alhaji, Dan Tsatsumbe, Doguwa”, da sauran su.

An dauki tsawon lokaci ana haka a cikin kasar Hausa, ga kuma haraji mai tsanani wanda ya sa“ba ma shari’ar musulumci kamar su: harajin shanu “Jangali”, harajin kudin kasa, harajin kudin sallah, kudin gari, da sauran su wadanda duk sun sa“ba ma shari’ah kamar yadda sarkin musulumci Muhammadu Bello Dan Shehu Usmanu Danfodiyo ya wallafa a cikin littafin sa mai suna “al-gayth al-wabl fi-sirat al- imam” wanda wannan littafin ya bayyana hanyoyin samun kudin shiga ga asusun Gwannati ta hanyar da addinin musulumci ya tana da.

A kwai kuma ya“ki-ya“ke wanda akeyi a duk fadin kasar Hausa ya“kin da akeyi ta hanyar masarauta mai “karfi ta mamaye masarauta maras “karfi, ta hanyar kame matasa a matsayin bayi da kwashe dukiyar wadanda ankaci da yafi, wanda hakan duk ya sa“ba ma shari’ar musulumci.

Irin wadannan “yake “yaken sune misali duka kasashen Hausa tun daga Kano, Katsina, Zazzau “Zaria”, Gobir, Rano, Daura, Kabi, Zamfara, Yawuri, da sauran su babu gari daya daga cikin su dake shugabantar sauran garu ruwa, kawai dai duk suna ya“kar junan su ne ta hanyar ya za’ayi kowace daga cikin su ta zama babba kamar “super power” yakin kuma ba na addini ba ne, na tara dukiya da mallakar bayi da mallakar kasa ne kawai.

To a cikin wannan yanayi ne Allah ya tada Mujaddadi Shehu Usmanu Danfodiyo da “kanen sa Malam Abdullahi Danfodiyo da Dan sa Muhammadu Bello da sauran jama’a, wadanda sunka yi tsaye tsayin daka don ganin sun maida al’ummar kasar Hausa saman hanya madaidaiciya wanda kuma har Allah ya basu nasarar yin hakan.

Wannan shine yanayin Addinin musulumci a kasar Hausa kafin zuwan Shehu Usmanu Danfodiyo.

Mai rubutawa:

Mustapha Usman Zoramawa.
Mustaphaafallay@gmail.com
+2349031650490
Dalibin Tarihi,
Jami’ar Usmanu Danfodiyo dake Sakkwato.