Tarihin Ƙabilar Fulani

Kabilar Fulani ƙabila ce ta makiyaya da ke cikin yankuna da dama na yammacin Afirka. Mazauna sassan Sudan, Mauritania, Mali, Senegal, Guinea, Najeriya, Kamaru, Sudan, Eritriya, Saliyo, da Gambiya, Fulani sun kafa tarihinsu zuwa asali mai ban sha’awa.

A bisa al’adarsu ta baka, Fulanin sun samo asali ne daga wani mutum mai suna ‘Modibbo’, wanda aka ce ya fito daga Gabas a karni na 11 zuwa yankin Malanfuri da ke a yanzu Mauritaniya.

Tsawon ƙarnuka da yawa, ƙabilar Fulani ta zama sanannen ƙaƙƙarfan al’adu a cikin Yammacin Afirka, galibi suna kafa manyan dauloli.

Misali, a karni na 17, an kafa daular Fulani a yankunan yammacin Afirka, daga baya kuma aka fi sani da Khalifancin Sakkwato. Wannan masarauta ta zama daya daga cikin daulolin Musulunci mafi girma a yammacin Afirka kuma ta hada yankuna kamar sassan Najeriya, Benin, Kamaru, Ghana, Nijar, da Chadi. An samo ta ne daga hadakar manyan al’adu guda biyu – kungiyar Fulani makiyaya da kuma ‘yan kasuwar Hausa. Wannan hadin kai na al’adu daban-daban ya ba wa kungiyoyin biyu damar ci gaba, kuma a karshe Daular Sakkwato ta zama daya daga cikin dauloli mafi karfi a yammacin Afirka.

Yayin da shekaru suka shude, kabilar fulani sun yi kokarin raya al’adunsu, kuma a tsawon tarihi, sun samu nasarori masu ban sha’awa, kamar yada addinin Islama, cinikin bayi da ya wuce sahara, inganta yare, tsarin magungunan ganye, da kuma inganta harkar noma, tattarawa da nazarin bayanan yanayi.

Bugu da kari, wasu daga cikin fitattun mutane a Afirka ta zamani sun fito ne daga kabilar Fulani, kamar tsohon shugaban Najeriya Umaru Yar’adua, Bafulatani, da marubuci kuma mai neman sauyi, Cheik Anta Diop, Bafullatani daga Senegal.

Kabilar Fulani wani yanki ne na ban mamaki a tarihin Afirka, kuma sun kasance wani muhimmin bangare na al’adu da siyasa a cikin nahiyar da ma duniya baki daya.